原標題：【中西比較】Lecture One ContrastiveStudy of Chinese and English
English: gender, number, case, tense, voice, mood, degree ofcomparison, person and parts of speech.
我給了他一本書. I gavehim a book.
他給了我兩本書. He has given me two books.
他爸爸常常給他一些書. His father often gives him books
Not a finger did I lay on him.
He had to quit the position and went inexile, having been deprived of his power.
out of question 毫無疑問
out of the question 絕不
take a chair 請坐/就坐
take the chair 主持會議/做主席
a hundred and one 很多
one hundred and one 一百零一
She was with a child. 她帶著一個孩子。
She was with child. 她懷孕了。
They are students of our school. 他們是本校的學生。
They are the students of our school. 他們是本校的全部學生。
I have lived here for more than a year. 我在這兒住了一年多了。
I have lived here fore more than one year. 我在這兒住了超過一年了。
今天不會下雨吧? It isn’t going to rain today, is it?
你好好想想吧!Just think it over.
明天就明天吧.All right, let’s make it tomorrow.
咱們走吧. Let’s go.
打吧, 打不下去; 跑吧, 跑不了, 敵人只好投降. Unable to fight on or to escape, the enemy were forced to surrender.
aWhat is he at? 他正在干什么?
aJohn voted with theTories. John 投票支持保守黨.
aHe is a man above vulgarinterests. 他是一個脫離了低級趣味的人
aIt looks as if we are infor a storm.看來我們免不了要碰上一場暴風雨了.
You may ˊnot go. 你不可以去.
You ˊmay notgo.你可以不去.
You said he would COME.
You said he WOULD come.
You said HE would come.
You SAID he would come.
YOU said he would come.
a我叫他去。I’ll ask him to go.
I’ll go and call him.
a我想起來了。I’ll get up.
I’ve thought it out..
Escalating mountains, meandering paths, tinkling springs andinterspersing trees.
行行過太行,On and on past Taihang we walk
迢迢赴延安.By and by to Yanan we make our way
細細問故舊,Again and again with old friends we talk
星星數鬢斑.One by one we count our hairs grey.
1. Chinese grammar is flexible while English grammar is rigid.
人不犯我,我不犯人。We will not attack unlesswe are attacked.
人到事中迷,就怕沒人提. When a man is lost in a labyrinth, what he needs badly is a hint.
As you sow, so will you reap.種瓜得瓜，種豆得豆
He is smart as a rule, but this time a fool.聰明一世，糊涂一時
Once a certain limit is reached, a change in the opposite direction isinevitable.物極必反
Birds of the same feather flock together. 物以類聚，人以群分
一言既出，駟馬難追。What is said cannot beunsaid.
耳聽為虛，眼見為實。Seeing is believing.
差之毫厘，謬之千里。A miss is as good as amile.
佛要金裝，人要衣裝。Fine feathers make finebirds.
There is no difference but difference of degrees between differentdegrees of difference and no difference.
去了也白去。Even if you go there itwouldn’t do any good.
無事不登三寶殿。I wouldn’t come to you ifI hadn’t something to ask of you.
喝水不忘掘井人When you drink water,think of those who dug the well.
2. Chinese has an overall perspective while English has an individualviewpoint.
門吱呀一聲開了, 進來一個人.The door squeaks open and in comes a person.
人生來平等。All men are createdequal.
做人難，做女人難，做名女人更難。It is difficult for everyone to live in this world, esp. a famous woman.
Man proposes, God disposes.
No discord, no concord.
The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps we harass; the enemytires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.
敵進我退, 敵駐我擾, 敵疲我打,敵退我追.
When those above behave unworthily, those below will do the same.上梁不正下梁歪。
Until all is over, ambition never dies.不到黃河心不死。
無官一身輕One who has no official duties has a light heart.
3. Chinese language isimplicitandconcisewhile Englishlanguage is explicitand elaborate.
長夜橫枕意心歪, 斜月三更門半開，短命到今無口信, 肝腸望斷沒人來。
Pun雙關語: The use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more meanings ordifferent associations, or the use of two or more words of the same or nearlythe same sound with different meanings, so as to produce a humorous effect.
aA bicycle can't stand onits own because it is two-tyred.
aHis left brain hasnothing right and his right brain has nothing left.
aI was arrested at theairport. Just because I was greeting my cousin Jack! All that I said was"Hi Jack", but very loud.
aOn Sunday, they pray foryou and on Monday they prey on you.
aAn ambassador is an honest man who lies abroadfor the good of his country.
aWe must all hangtogether, or assuredly we shall all hang separately. (Benjamin Franklin)
aTry our sweet corn, andyou’ll smile from ear to ear.
aI saw a saw saw a saw.
aIt’s the buy buy time.
aTrust us. Over 5000 earsof experience.
a“你是萍, …… 憑---憑什么打我兒子!”
a“ you’re my --- mighty free with your fists! What right have you to hitmy son?”
aWhy is an island like theletter T?
aBecause it is in the middle of water.
aWhy are Saturdays andSundays so strong?
aBecause they are notweek/weakdays.
aWhy is a room full ofmarried people like an empty room?
aBecause there is not a singleperson there.
aWhat is the differencebetween the law and an iceberg?
aOne is justice while the other is just ice.
aWhy is death like theletter E?
aBecause it is at the end oflife.
aWhy are soldiers tired onApril 1st?
aBecause they have just had alongmarch.
aWhen is a new hat like anold one?
aWhen it is worn.
aWhat starts with T, endswith T and full of T?
aWhy are movie stars socool
aBecause they have so many fans.
Palindrome回文: a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward
aPut up if I put up!
aAble was I ere I saw Elba.
aMadam in Eden, I’m Adam.
aNo X in Nixon.
aGirls bathing in Bikini,eyeing boy eyeing Bikini on bathing girl.
ayou can cage a swallow,can't you? but you can't swallow a cage, can you?”
aThe jail might have beenthe infirmary．Theinfirmary might have been the jail．
aExperience withoutlearning is better than learning without experience．
Anticlimax: a disappointing decline after a previous rise; anabrupt, unintended transition in style from the exalted to the commonplace,producing a ludicrous effect反高潮，突降法
aThe duties of a soldierare to protect his country and peel potatoes.
a“Alas！Alas！Whatshall I do? I've lost my wife and best hat, too!”
aThe following was writtenon the gravestone of an army horse: “Here lies Maggie, the horse who in hertime kicked a general, 2 colonels, 4 majors,10 captains, 24 lieutenants, 40sergeants, 220 privates, and a bomb.
aYour future depends onyour dreams. So go to sleep.
aThe wise never marry, andwhen they marry they become otherwise.
aLove the neighbor. Butdon‘t get caught.
aOne should love animals.They are sotasty.
aBehind every successfulman, there is a woman. And behind every unsuccessful man, there are two.
aSave water. Shower with your girlfriend.
aInever knew what real happiness was until I got married. And then, it was toolate.”
Alliteration: use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in aline of verse頭韻
43lives: Soccer Stampede’s TollshocksSouth Africa. (BostonGlobe, April 13, 2002)
Residents Return toRubblein Kansas. (MSNBC News, April 26, 2001)
O WildWest Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being.
It was a splendidpopulation --- for all the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed athome.
Predictably, the winterwill besnowy, sleety, and slushy.
The strength of womencomes from the fact that psychology cannot explain us. Men can beanalyzed(分析), women… merely adored(憐惜).
Penny wise but poundfoolish. 撿了芝麻，丟了西瓜
Change is part of lifeand the making of character, hon. When things happen that you don’t like, youhave two choices: You getbitter or better (痛苦不堪，痛快達觀).
east – seat west– stew south – shout north– thorn
aDormitory dirty room
athe eyes they see
aEleven plus two – Twelveplus one
amother-in-law woman Hitler