【中西比較】LectureOneContrastiveStudyofChineseandEnglish

時間:2017-10-19 06:56:17 來源:大語文教育
【中西比較】LectureOneContrastiveStudyofChineseandEnglish原標題:【中西比較】LectureOneContrastiveStudyofChineseandEnglishLanguageDifferencelFromStructure1.英語有形態變化,漢語沒有嚴格意義的形態變化.English:gender,number,case,tense,voice,

原標題:【中西比較】Lecture OneContrastiveStudy of Chinese and English

LanguageDifference

lFromStructure

1. 英語有形態變化,漢語沒有嚴格意義的形態變化.

English: gender, number, case, tense, voice, mood, degree ofcomparison, person and parts of speech.

漢語: 數量助詞,動態助詞,結構助詞

比較:

我給了他一本書. I gavehim a book.

他給了我兩本書. He has given me two books.

他爸爸常常給他一些書. His father often gives him books

2. 英語詞序比較靈活,漢語詞序相對固定.

Not a finger did I lay on him.

我從沒有指責過他.

他被剝奪了權利之后,只好離職,流落他鄉.

He had to quit the position and went inexile, having been deprived of his power.

3.英語經常使用定冠詞和不定冠詞

out of question 毫無疑問

out of the question 絕不

take a chair 請坐/就坐

take the chair 主持會議/做主席

a hundred and one 很多

one hundred and one 一百零一

She was with a child. 她帶著一個孩子。

She was with child. 她懷孕了。

They are students of our school. 他們是本校的學生。

They are the students of our school. 他們是本校的全部學生。

I have lived here for more than a year. 我在這兒住了一年多了。

I have lived here fore more than one year. 我在這兒住了超過一年了。

4.漢語有豐富多彩的助詞.

今天不會下雨吧? It isn’t going to rain today, is it?

你好好想想吧!Just think it over.

明天就明天吧.All right, let’s make it tomorrow.

咱們走吧. Let’s go.

打吧, 打不下去; 跑吧, 跑不了, 敵人只好投降. Unable to fight on or to escape, the enemy were forced to surrender.

5.英語常用介詞,漢語則少用介詞.

aWhat is he at? 他正在干什么?

aJohn voted with theTories. John 投票支持保守黨.

aHe is a man above vulgarinterests. 他是一個脫離了低級趣味的人

aIt looks as if we are infor a storm.看來我們免不了要碰上一場暴風雨了.

lFrom Intonation

1.英語是語調語言,語音表意手段主要是語調和重音.

You may ˊnot go. 你不可以去.

You ˊmay notgo.你可以不去.

You said he would COME.

You said he WOULD come.

You said HE would come.

You SAID he would come.

YOU said he would come.

2. 漢語是聲調語言,語音表意手段主要是聲調.

a我的衣服/我的姨夫

a我愛馬/我挨罵

a我叫他去。I’ll ask him to go.

I’ll go and call him.

a我想起來了。I’ll get up.

I’ve thought it out..

3. 漢語注重音節均勻,成雙成對:對偶,排比,反復,疊音

Translate:

重重疊疊山,曲曲彎彎路,叮叮咚咚泉,高高下下樹

Escalating mountains, meandering paths, tinkling springs andinterspersing trees.

行行過太行,On and on past Taihang we walk

迢迢赴延安.By and by to Yanan we make our way

細細問故舊,Again and again with old friends we talk

星星數鬢斑.One by one we count our hairs grey.

lFrom Meaning

1. Chinese grammar is flexible while English grammar is rigid.

1) .漢語是意合語言,以神統形,注重邏輯,隱形連貫.

人不犯我,我不犯人。We will not attack unlesswe are attacked.

人到事中迷,就怕沒人提. When a man is lost in a labyrinth, what he needs badly is a hint.

As you sow, so will you reap.種瓜得瓜,種豆得豆

He is smart as a rule, but this time a fool.聰明一世,糊涂一時

Once a certain limit is reached, a change in the opposite direction isinevitable.物極必反

Birds of the same feather flock together. 物以類聚,人以群分

遠在天邊,近在眼前。Right here.

一言既出,駟馬難追。What is said cannot beunsaid.

耳聽為虛,眼見為實。Seeing is believing.

差之毫厘,謬之千里。A miss is as good as amile.

佛要金裝,人要衣裝。Fine feathers make finebirds.

There is no difference but difference of degrees between differentdegrees of difference and no difference.

實為五十步笑百步是也.

2).英語是形合語言,必須使用關聯詞,以形式連接詞語句

去了也白去。Even if you go there itwouldn’t do any good.

無事不登三寶殿。I wouldn’t come to you ifI hadn’t something to ask of you.

喝水不忘掘井人When you drink water,think of those who dug the well.

2. Chinese has an overall perspective while English has an individualviewpoint.

英語:重理性、重分析、重個體、嚴謹

漢語:重感性、重悟性、重整體、含蓄

門吱呀一聲開了, 進來一個人.The door squeaks open and in comes a person.

人生來平等。All men are createdequal.

做人難,做女人難,做名女人更難。It is difficult for everyone to live in this world, esp. a famous woman.

Man proposes, God disposes.

謀事在人,成事在天。

No discord, no concord.

不打不相識; 不打不成交

The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps we harass; the enemytires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.

敵進我退, 敵駐我擾, 敵疲我打,敵退我追.

When those above behave unworthily, those below will do the same.上梁不正下梁歪。

Until all is over, ambition never dies.不到黃河心不死。

無官一身輕One who has no official duties has a light heart.

3. Chinese language isimplicitandconcisewhile Englishlanguage is explicitand elaborate.

長夜橫枕意心歪, 斜月三更門半開,短命到今無口信, 肝腸望斷沒人來。

Figureof Speech

Pun雙關語: The use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more meanings ordifferent associations, or the use of two or more words of the same or nearlythe same sound with different meanings, so as to produce a humorous effect.

aA bicycle can't stand onits own because it is two-tyred.

aHis left brain hasnothing right and his right brain has nothing left.

aI was arrested at theairport. Just because I was greeting my cousin Jack! All that I said was"Hi Jack", but very loud.

aOn Sunday, they pray foryou and on Monday they prey on you.

aAn ambassador is an honest man who lies abroadfor the good of his country.

aWe must all hangtogether, or assuredly we shall all hang separately. (Benjamin Franklin)

aTry our sweet corn, andyou’ll smile from ear to ear.

aI saw a saw saw a saw.

aIt’s the buy buy time.

aTrust us. Over 5000 earsof experience.

aOIC!

a春蠶不應老,晝夜常懷絲。何惜微軀盡,纏綿自有時。

a楊柳青青江水準,聞郎江上唱歌聲。東邊日出西邊雨,道是無晴卻有晴。

a相見時難別亦然,東風無力百花殘。春蠶到死絲方盡,蠟炬成灰淚始干。

a你是萍, …… ---憑什么打我兒子!

a“ you’re my --- mighty free with your fists! What right have you to hitmy son?”

aWhy is an island like theletter T?

aBecause it is in the middle of water.

aWhy are Saturdays andSundays so strong?

aBecause they are notweek/weakdays.

aWhy is a room full ofmarried people like an empty room?

aBecause there is not a singleperson there.

aWhat is the differencebetween the law and an iceberg?

aOne is justice while the other is just ice.

aWhy is death like theletter E?

aBecause it is at the end oflife.

aWhy are soldiers tired onApril 1st?

aBecause they have just had alongmarch.

aWhen is a new hat like anold one?

aWhen it is worn.

aWhat starts with T, endswith T and full of T?

aTeapot.

aWhy are movie stars socool

aBecause they have so many fans.

Palindrome回文: a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward

aa Toyota

arace car

aPut up if I put up!

aAble was I ere I saw Elba.

aMadam in Eden, I’m Adam.

aNo X in Nixon.

aGirls bathing in Bikini,eyeing boy eyeing Bikini on bathing girl.

ayou can cage a swallow,can't you? but you can't swallow a cage, can you?

aThe jail might have beenthe infirmaryTheinfirmary might have been the jail

aExperience withoutlearning is better than learning without experience

賞花歸去馬如飛,去馬如飛酒力微;酒力微醒時已暮, 醒時已暮賞花歸.

(.吳絳雪)

《夏》:香蓮碧水動風涼夏日長。

香蓮碧水動風涼,水動風涼夏日長;長日夏涼風動水,涼風動水碧蓮香。

Anticlimax: a disappointing decline after a previous rise; anabrupt, unintended transition in style from the exalted to the commonplace,producing a ludicrous effect反高潮,突降法

a一位老太不是人,南海觀音下凡塵。三個兒子都是賊,盜得蟠桃獻母親。

aThe duties of a soldierare to protect his country and peel potatoes.

aAlasAlasWhatshall I do? I've lost my wife and best hat, too!

aThe following was writtenon the gravestone of an army horse: “Here lies Maggie, the horse who in hertime kicked a general, 2 colonels, 4 majors,10 captains, 24 lieutenants, 40sergeants, 220 privates, and a bomb.

aYour future depends onyour dreams. So go to sleep.

aThe wise never marry, andwhen they marry they become otherwise.

aLove the neighbor. Butdon‘t get caught.

aOne should love animals.They are sotasty.

aBehind every successfulman, there is a woman. And behind every unsuccessful man, there are two.

aSave water. Shower with your girlfriend.

aInever knew what real happiness was until I got married. And then, it was toolate.”

Alliteration: use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in aline of verse頭韻

43lives: Soccer Stampede’s TollshocksSouth Africa. (BostonGlobe, April 13, 2002)

Residents Return toRubblein Kansas. (MSNBC News, April 26, 2001)

O WildWest Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being.

It was a splendidpopulation --- for all the slow, sleepy, sluggish-brained sloths stayed athome.

l那是一批卓越的人---因為所有那些慢慢吞吞,昏昏沉沉,反應遲鈍,形如樹獺的人留在了家鄉.

l(出來的)這幫人個個出類拔萃---因為凡是呆板,呆滯,呆頭呆腦,呆如樹獺者都呆在家里了.

Predictably, the winterwill besnowy, sleety, and slushy.

雪花飄飄,雪雨霏霏,雪路泥濘

The strength of womencomes from the fact that psychology cannot explain us. Men can beanalyzed(分析), women… merely adored(憐惜).

Penny wise but poundfoolish. 撿了芝麻,丟了西瓜

Change is part of lifeand the making of character, hon. When things happen that you don’t like, youhave two choices: You getbitter or better (痛苦不堪,痛快達觀).

Anagrams 變位詞

east – seat west– stew south – shout north– thorn

aDormitory dirty room

athe eyes they see

aEleven plus two – Twelveplus one

amother-in-law woman Hitler

周一下午4:00——6:00學四年級語文精品班課

Come on!

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